AAS Annual Meeting

Interarea/Border-Crossing Session 482

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Session 482: East Asian Histories

The Fujian Friar: Victorio Riccio and the Ming-Qing Transition
Anna Maria Busquets, Open University, Spain

In 1667 the Dominican Victorio Riccio wrote during his retreat to the san Juan del Monte convent, in the outskirts of Manila, his story "Hechos de la Orden de Predicadores en el Imperio de China". Containing more than 350 manuscript pages, this document is divided in three large parts and it can be found in the archives of the Dominican convent of Ávila. Even if only one passage of it has been published in an anthology of Spanish texts on Taiwan (the passage describes the relations with Zheng Chenggong), the document remains unpublished. Riccio, who spent more than ten years in Fujian, experienced the Manchu arrival in China and informed on it. He also was notably related to Zheng Chenggong when the latter did set up in front of Riccio’s convent bearing witness of all this. In spite of the fact that the text remained unpublished, it immediately circulated around: the also Dominican Navarrete did make use of Riccio’s story in his "Tratados históricos" (1676) when referring to all those aspects related both to the Manchu entry and to the Zheng Chenggong regime. However, in his text Navarrete does not admit to be following the document written by Riccio before. This communication will discuss on Riccio’s figure, the information he provides on the Manchu entry in China and his involvement with the Zheng Chenggong regime and his aspirations on Manila, bearing in mind the possible ties which may exist between Riccio’s document and Martini’s "De Bello Tartarico", published in 1654.

Combining Space and Time - Geographical Information System Analyses and Visualisations in Historical Research: Case Studies of Mining Issues in Qing China
Stefan Dieball, University of Tuebingen, Germany

A Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for some decades in the field of natural sciences, but its potentials for other sciences, such as history, were only recently discovered and used. This paper shows possibilities of GIS applications in historical research. It focuses on chances and limitations of the usage of a Historical-GIS (HGIS) for historians and other scientists. The case studies are dealing with different issues of mining activities in Southwest China in the 18th century that include, for instance, the localisation of objects (e.g. mines, mints) and GIS analyses of transport routes, etc. For those issues, historical sources (such as Qing official regulations and gazetteers) alone can only deliver limited information that cannot help historians, especially sinologists, to make in-depth studies of spatial mining issues. Using HGIS, researcher can combine space and time in general, and combine different kinds of data in particular. This paper uses and analyses information taken from various sources: historical and modern literature, historical and modern maps and atlases, as well as remote sensing and GIS data that are often not used in historical research. Another benefit of using GIS is the possibility to create various types of visualisations, simple static maps, and animated maps or even web map services. They can be used to show the result of the studies or be the starting point of further analyses. As, compared with other sciences, historical data is rarely data-rich, and even error-prone, problems arise. Besides those general HGIS problems, special limitations working with Qing-time China sources will be addressed.

Reflective Adaptations of Western Knowledge: Obstetrics and Reproductive Discourses from the Late Tokugawa to the Beginning of Meiji
Eiko Saeki, Rutgers University, USA

Scholars have noted that the introduction of foreign ideas and technologies from late Tokugawa to early Meiji was a reflective process of selective adaptation. Medicine, in particular, was a part of this pursuit of utility rather than an automatic dissemination of available knowledge. Taking up the issues of cultural exchange and knowledge negotiation, this paper examines the obstetrical knowledge and practices as well as the discourses on reproduction in Japan from the mid eighteenth century to the late nineteenth century, the period that saw the expansion of the study of western knowledge and the emergence of the first school of obstetrics, the Kagawa School. Despite the relatively late and slow introduction of western obstetrical knowledge during the Tokugawa period compared to other fields of medicine, the degree of continuity between Tokugawa and Meiji invites further investigation. What set the stage for the change to the new system in Meiji was not the incorporation of western obstetrical knowledge during Tokugawa. Rather, other factors, including an emphasis on empiricism and the changing roles of the doctor and the pregnant woman in the Kagawa practice, as well as the intensification of moralistic discourses surrounding reproduction, contributed to the transition to the Meiji system. While the Kagawa School popularized the notion that pregnancy complications could be managed, moral entrepreneurs censured abortion and infanticide and stressed women’s responsibility in reproduction. By late Tokugawa, an increasing sense of control over reproduction emerged. The baby became from something to be given to something to create.

Japanese Copper for Chinese Mints: A Quantitative Analysis of the Sino-Japanese Copper Trade, 1740-1840
Thomas Hirzel, University of Tuebingen, Germany

Although Qing China and Tokugawa Japan maintained no formal relations, trade continued as both sides needed the exchange. Chinese merchants ran the Nagasaki trade, controlled and supported by both governments. The period from the major reorganizations of the 1730s to the mid- nineteenth century has been considered a phase of stagnation. However, Japanese copper continued to be important for the supply of Chinese mints, especially of the coastal provinces Jiangsu and Zhejiang. This paper presents results of a quantitative analysis undertaken to reconstruct chief factors that shaped the trade. Data for the period is thin. Chinese sources contain none on the amounts shipped from of Japan for the period 1736 to 1755, and only scattered data afterwards. This research has overcome this problem by using Qing archival documents that record the annual consumption of Japanese copper by Chinese mints for the period from 1740 to 1840. The data sequence obtained gives a good indication of the volumes and trends in imports. The results demonstrate that copper imported through Nagasaki was crucially important to Qing minting, second only to the production of Yunnan province. The Qing copper administration maintained low production costs at the domestic mines, but costs of overland carriage across the southwestern mountain regions and river shipping were high. Maritime transport from Nagasaki was vastly superior. This paper shows that the Qing state demonstrated remarkable flexibility in arranging forms of cooperation with the Chinese merchants who traded to Nagasaki, thus securing a price below than that of Yunnan copper.

Interrogating History: A Study of rdo ring pa bstan ‘dzin dpal ‘byor's Autobiography
Lara E. Braitstein, McGill University, Canada

The late 18th century was a time of tremendous upheaval in Tibet, and one of the pivotal figures of that period is the 10th Zhva dmar pa Chos sgrub Rgya mtsho. So controversial were his life and death, that a 171 year long ban on his reincarnation followed his death in Nepal in 1792. The received narrative of his role casts him as a villain who masterminded the Nepalese invasion of Tibet then killed himself when the plan failed. This narrative is seriously vexed by the autobiography of the Bka' Blon Rdo ring pa Bstan ‘dzin Dpal ‘byor. Rdo ring pa was a member of the Tibetan delegations sent to negotiate a resolution to Tibet’s wars with Nepal. He spent 1791-2 in Kathmandu as a hostage, and his autobiography provides a daily account of his time in Nepal, including his interactions with the 10th Zhva dmar pa, and the only eye-witness description of events leading up to and following his death. Oddly, Rdo ring pa's account has not yet been studied closely. When it is referred to at all, it is usually paraphrased, and that too in such a way as to support the biases of whoever is using it. Using the event of the 10th Zhva dmar pa's death as a focal point, this paper examines the ways in which this particular autobiography challenges what is thought to be known about that period, and how it has been deployed in composing histories of Tibet in the 18th century.

A Comparison of History Textbook of South Korea, North Korea, and America on the Korean War
Boram Kim, , South Korea

It is very meaningful year of 2010 in Korea because it has been exactly 60 years since the Korean War broke out in 1950. This war was a key event determining the modern history of south and North Korea. This war strengthened the anti-Communism in South Korea and ‘Juche’ doctrine in north one. History education of each country sustains two opposed positions. History education under each political regime is treated with self-centered attitude. Especially interpretation of the Korean War is more contradictory than any other themes. Depending on the approach regarding the cause of the Korean war and its characteristics, historical perception and its narrative before and after the war become very different. Nowadays in school, various media and tools are utilized as teaching materials for the students. Still, most of the schools use the textbook as the major tool for studying, so textbook analysis would be very meaningful. There can be large differences in interpretations regarding ideology and system of logic regarding textbooks. Especially, textbooks, which should deliver the truth, and history education in a way amplify the conflict and prejudice. Therefore, the research performed analysis on the narratives of various countries' textbooks regarding the Korean war between three countries: South Korea, North Korea, America As a result of textbook analysis, for south Korea and the US which share the same ideology from the cold war, both textbooks viewed the Korean war as North Korea's invasion by military power for expansion of communism and for unification in communism.